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Sound Transmission and Flooring Types

When it comes to flooring, the more muffled the sound, the better, especially in a multi-story building, house, apartment, or condominium. Fortunately, there are several good flooring choices with effective sound dampening properties.

Sound is transmitted when hard objects, like hard-soled shoes, furniture, dropped objects, or even dog claws impact a hard surface, like tile or stone. Without anything to absorb it, sound waves can spread, multiply, and echo off the walls, amplifying even a small sound to a distracting crescendo with the right acoustics. Given a large room with high ceilings and hard polished floors, a simple walk across the lobby of an office building, for example, can become quite a distraction.

Sound Ratings

Sound transmission is rated using three different standards, each defining a different way in which sound is transmitted. Sound absorption of floor coverings may be measured on two of those scales. The third covers room-to-room transmission, more appropriate for walls.

IIC (impact insulation class) is measured in terms of sound impact, or how well sound vibrations travel through a floor to the room below.

IIC 50 has the least impact sound absorption quality. While this may be appropriate for ground floors, it would be unsatisfactory for most on a high floor without a great deal of insulation in the area between the floor and the ceiling below. Most stone and tile will fall into this category.

IIC 60 indicates a medium impact sound absorption quality and encompasses floorings such as wood, laminates, and some vinyls.

IIC 65 is a high level of impact sound transmission absorption and includes superior sound reduction materials like carpet and cork.

IIC is greatly influenced by the surfaces and areas under the floor and the IIC rating can be significantly enhanced by the addition of underlayment, insulation, or by floating the floor. The “loudest” floor is stone or tile laid directly over concrete. The IIC scale does not account for joist noises like squeaking or rattling.

NRC (noise reduction coefficient) measures the amount of noise that is absorbed by the material and not reflected. A room with a high NRC rating would eliminate background noise and echoes to help clarify speech. Theaters, for example, must be constructed to have a high NRC rating. Without it, sound waves would bounce off the walls and crash into each other, creating a cacophony of continuous sound, making individual words impossible to distinguish. Carpet, with an NRC rating of .40–.50 is the most efficient absorptive material. Vinyl, cork, and rubber have a fairly high NRC rating, with hardwood, bamboo, tile, and stone at the bottom of the scale for sound absorption.

Under the Floor

Sound transmission is affected by more than just the top layer of flooring. Other factors include the underlayment and subfloor, plus adhesives and sealants used during installation. If used on a higher floor in a multi-story structure, insulation between the floor of one room and the ceiling of the room below plays an important part in deadening sound. Any kind of insulation packed between the joists will not only help to trap and dissipate sound, it will block the loss of heat or air-conditioning, effectively lowering your utility bills.

Installation Materials

The use of flexible acoustic adhesives adds yet another layer of sound dampening properties to the floor. Applied around the edges of the floor, a flexible sealant is designed to fill gaps where the floor meets the wall or around doors or air ducts in order to block channels where sound can travel.

Flooring for Sound Reduction


Number one on the on all counts is carpeting. By definition, carpet is the antithesis of hard, echoing surfaces. Sound waves are effectively absorbed and deflected by the carpet and by the padding under the carpet, and the level of sound absorption can be enhanced with a thicker pad. Carpet is usually the cheapest option in the short run, but also the most problematic in terms of durability, cleaning, and allergy aggravation because it tends to trap allergens and dust.


Cork is a great choice for sound reduction. It does more than merely dampen sound; it absorbs it, creating a blissful peace that everyone will appreciate, including downstairs neighbors. Cork is such an effective sound reduction material that it is used on walls to soundproof recording studios to produce clear soundtracks without background noise. The key is in the porous structure of the cork. Rather than bounce around, sound waves sink into the cellular structure of the cork and are broken up.

In addition to the obvious benefit of sound reduction, cork flooring adds natural warmth to rooms and a slightly springy give that makes it comfortable and easy to walk or stand on and may even save dropped objects from breaking on impact.


Quality vinyl flooring that is backed with foam and has a cushioned, flexible surface, makes it a good choice for a sound reduction, but as with everything else, you get what you pay for. While you can install any tile over an existing floor, the material of the floor will influence sound absorption qualities. Top quality vinyl will help nullify that factor and provide a nearly soundless surface that has spring and give for comfort.


Laminate flooring can be a reasonably good choice for sound reduction with the addition of a quality underlayment. In addition to absorbing sound, a layer underlayment will add a feeling of solidity to the floor and reduce the hollow percussive sound that footfalls can produce when laminate flooring is floated over a subfloor without the benefit of underlayment. The underlayment pads a laminate floor much in the same way that a pad works under carpet, adding give for extra comfort and insulation for overall warmth.

(83) Comments

  1. Hello, I am working on a 30 -story condo building where the customer wants a final polished concrete floor no wood laminate or carpet simply a polished concrete floor. After leveling the floor can I put some sort of sound barrier in between the level floor and the layer of polished concrete?

    • BuildDirect Product Expert Team
      BuildDirect Product Expert Team - Reply

      Hi Chris,

      Thank you for getting in touch! Unfortunately we have not worked with poured polished concrete with an underlay before. You may be able to find something, there are quite a few apartments with polished concrete and most apartment buildings do have a specific sound barrier needed. I would suggest getting in touch with other contractors or installers who have used polished concrete to see if they have experience with a sound-dampening underlay. Please don’t hesitate to get in touch if anything else comes up!

  2. I am considering the installation of COREtec Plus flooring in my home. The family room houses my hi end stereo system. I am concerned about how the stereo will sound with this flooring vs. the wall to wall carpet that is in the room now. COREtec flooring is a locking luxury vinyl flooring with a cork layer on the bottom of it. The cork layer should help to deaden the room. I am trying to eliminate beaming and echoing of sound from the stereo. Thanks for your comments.

    • BuildDirect Product Expert Team
      BuildDirect Product Expert Team - Reply

      Hi Tom,

      Thank you for getting in touch! The room will definitely be louder with the vinyl versus the carpet. Unfortunately the cork on the bottom may not work as you would like it to, that is more to add a cushion to protect the planks from the subfloor. I’m sure it will help a little bit but I can’t 100% guarantee it will actually deaden the sound of the stereo. You would want to go with an actual cork floor to help with that. Please let us know if there is anything else we can help out with!

    • BuildDirect Product Expert Team
      BuildDirect Product Expert Team - Reply

      Hi Tunde,

      Thank you for getting in touch! Unfortunately I am not 100% sure whether cork in available in Nigeria, I don’t see why it would not be. I would suggest checking with local contractors and installers to see if they have an idea of where to source it. Please let us know if you have any other questions!

  3. Hi! We currently have timber boards throughout our house upstairs. We have a unit underneath and were hoping to reduce the low frequency sounds of people walking upstairs on the boards. I really don’t want to put carpet through the entire house due to allergies and having a toddler! What would your advice be on the best option for us please? We have been given differing opinions from every local company we have asked. Thanks for your time!

  4. We’ve been seeking approval from our strata to install laminate flooring. The newly passed bylaws require soundproof ratings for both the underlay AND the flooring material itself. We’ve spoken to the contractor, the flooring manufacturer and other people knowledgeable about flooring and they all say that such ratings apply only to the underlay, and that the flooring material itself does not have any soundproofing capability or ratings. But somehow our strata is convinced that there are soundproofing specifications of the flooring material. I suspect they don’t understand how flooring works. Can you suggest any resources or clarification that might help us explain to them how the IIC and STC ratings work, and that they don’t apply to the flooring materials alone? The flooring we plan to use is 8mm laminate Kraus Solido Perform, with underlayment SolidSound Plus (IIC 75, STC 73). Thank you so much for your help!!

  5. My mom currently lives on the third floor in a condo. Right now only carpet is allowed to be put down because of the noise factor. I s there any kind of laminate flooring that has the sound proofing capabilities of carpet. My mom has bad allergies and really need s to get rid of the carpeting in there. I need something that I could present to the board on this. any ideas?

  6. Question:
    I live in a condo with a concrete floor. My next door neighbor installed laminate flooring and when they didn’t like the color they installed laminate over top of it. The noise levels are through the roof now. Could this be from installing laminate over laminate?
    Also, I don’t know if any acoustic underlay was used under either layer of flooring.

    • BuildDirect Product Expert Team
      BuildDirect Product Expert Team - Reply

      Hi Shannon. Thanks so much for reaching out to us! It could be from that, but it’s hard to say exactly without knowing what sort of underlayment was used, or if one was used at all. We don’t recommend installing a floating floor on top of another floating floor, so it is best to pull up the old laminate before installing a new floor. Please let us know if you have any other questions. Thanks!

  7. We are installing tile on a second floor apartment and the landlord is saying that we are unable to because of the nosie in the future. But the carpet seemed to make more noise due to the wood subfloor. Thank screwed down the wood then placed a black paper over that after the hardie backer then installed the tile they want use to take the tile out even though the nieghbor below said that it was less noisy is there. Would the tile be louder than the carpet over time??

    • BuildDirect Product Expert Team
      BuildDirect Product Expert Team - Reply

      Hi Stephanie. Thanks so much for reaching out to us! It’s hard for us to give you a definite answer on that without being on site. With that being said, the acoustics will not change over time, so a tile floor will not become louder in the future. It sounds as though the noise has been reduced and with tile being more durable than carpet, it definitely seems like the better option for your project. Please let me know if you have any other questions!

  8. Hi there, I’m currently living in a second story flat! I have carpet in there at the moment but I want to replace it with laminate but without tearing up the carpet! I was wondering if I could lay the laminate over the carpet and effectively use it as underlay! Also would that prevent the laminate flooring from being too loud for the residents underneath me!

  9. Hi, I need to re-do flooring in my home office and carpet is not an option due to allergy issues for my husband. I conduct live online webinars and want to make sure the flooring does not make me sound like I’m in a barrel. Would engineered wood be satisfactory for this? We are in Florida, so the humidity would prohibit wood, I think, and we three animals, I am concerned about not being able to “fix” laminate. If engineered wood wood be a logical choice, is there a specific underlayment I should look for or a specific brand of engineered wood that already has an integrated acoustic underlay? Thank you SO much for your help!

    • BuildDirect Product Expert Team
      BuildDirect Product Expert Team - Reply

      Hi Linda,

      Thank you for getting in touch! Engineered wood would be a good option for you. Another couple options that could work well are cork or luxury vinyl plank flooring. They will both absorb the sound much better than natural wood. In regards to the underlay, that would provide a bit more sound-dampening but I really think going with cork would be your best bet. I have included the links below to our cork and luxury vinyl plank options below:



      Please let us know if there is anything else we can help out with!

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